Top API Security
November 22, 2019

OWASP Top 10 API Risks

Security

To avoid API security risks, you need to know the OWASP top 10 API vulnerabilities. In this blog, we break down API security risks and how to prevent them.

The Rise of API Security Risks

The exponential growth of API usage in today’s digital world brings the risk of those APIs being vulnerable to attacks. Cyberattacks have become commonplace in today’s news, with multinational corporations making headlines for the wrong reasons due to a lack of API protection.

These data breaches can bring fines, litigation, and – possibly worst of all – damage to your reputation. It only takes one data leak for your brand to suffer irreparable damage. That’s why a comprehensive policy and process for API security, and the promotional process through the API lifecycle itself, is paramount to protect against threats and attacks.

Related >> What Are APIs?

What Is the OWASP Top 10 API List?

The most common API security risks are compiled annually by the Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP). Their most recognized resource, the OWASP Top 10 vulnerabilities, is a list produced by security experts around the globe to highlight the web application and API security risks that are deemed the most critical. Some vulnerabilities can be solved with SAST; others can be solved with API management. 

Top 10 API Security Risks

Here are the top 10 API security risks, according to OWASP.

  1. Broken Object Level Authorization
  2. Broken Authentication
  3. Excessive Data Exposure
  4. Lack of Resources and Rate Limiting
  5. Broken Function Level Authorization
  6. Mass Assignment
  7. Security Misconfiguration
  8. Injection
  9. Improper Assets Management
  10. Insufficient Logging and Monitoring

1. Broken Object Level Authorization

A characteristic of APIs is the exposure of endpoints that handle object identifiers. This creates a wide attack surface Level Access Control issue.

Read more >>  Broken Object Level Authorization

2. Broken Authentication

When authentication mechanisms are implemented incorrectly, attackers can compromise authentication tokens or exploit implementation flaws to assume the identity of another user. This compromises the security to that particular user, as well as the overall API security.

3. Excessive Data Exposure

Developers may expose all their object properties without taking into consideration these properties’ individual sensitivities, and instead rely on the clients for data filtering before displaying it to the user.

4. Lack of Resources and Rate Limiting

If an API does not impose a restriction on the size or number of resources that a user/client can request, server performance can suffer, as well as lead to a Denial of Service (DoS). This also creates an opportunity for authentication flaws such as brute force.

Read more >> Rate Limiting

5. Broken Function Level Authorization

Authorization flaws can arise from complex access control polices, different hierarchies/groups/roles, and a blurred distinction between administrative and regular functions. These issues allow attackers to gain access to other users’ resources and/or administrative functions.

6. Mass Assignment

When client-provided data (JSON, for example) is bound to data models without applying proper filtering properties, attackers are able to modify object properties they are not supposed to. This can be done by exploring API endpoints, guessing object properties, reading documentation, or using request payloads to provide additional object properties.

7. Security Misconfiguration

Misconfiguration can result from a number of common issues: insecure default configurations, open cloud storage, incomplete or ad-hoc configurations, misconfigured HTTP headers, and more.

8. Injection

Injection flaws occur when a command or query causes untrusted data to be sent to an interpreter. Malicious data from an attacker can trick an interpreter into accessing data without proper authorization or executing unintended commands.

Read More >> Mitigating Malicious Code Injection

9. Improper Assets Management

Composing proper and updated documentation is critically important for APIs as they tend to expose more endpoints than traditional web applications. An inventory of deployed API versions and proper hosts can help mitigate common IT security risks like deprecated API versions and exposed debug endpoints.

10. Insufficient Logging and Monitoring

Perhaps the most exploited security vulnerability, hackers rely on a lack of logging and monitoring to compromise data unnoticed. By the time the breach is detected, it is often too late.

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